Amezruy uselmed n Tmaziɣt di temdint n Wehran

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1- Awal amatu ɣef umezruy:
Aṭas n yemdanen i wumi tezza tasa, i wumi yendef wul ɣef yir tignatin n ẓẓmek ideg tedder tmaziɣt. Ziɣ tuɛer mi ara s-tettwikkes tɣawsa i wemdan yellan d ayla-s; ladɣa ma d ayen i d-yewret sɣur imarawen-is d imangamen (imenza)-ines. Dɣa ma d tutlayt tayawalt neɣ iles n yemma-s i s-yettwakksen amek ara s-teḍru? Mačči kan d aneɣni neɣ d tuččḥa, ugar n waya: ad iḥulfu wemdan amzun akken ur yemmid d amdan ger yemdanen! Ulac miḥyaf yugaren aya!
Nessugum ahat a d-yas wass ideg ara d-rsen yakk yesteqsiyen-a lqayen: D acu yeǧǧan Tamaziɣt ur tettwaselmed seg tillay ɣezzifen yekkan ugar n kraḍ igiman iseggasen? Wissen ma d azaglu uberrani i d-yersen fell-aneɣ, neɣ ula d nekkni dɣa nefka afus?!
Ayen yeḍran yeḍra! Maca, skud yella wejbar, tezmer a d-tettwireqqeɛ tegnit; ẓẓmik ad yuɣal d liser, miḥyaf-nni a s-tuɣal tilist ma llan wat tuxsa (lebɣi) d wat tissas.
2-  Awal amatu ɣef uselmed n tmaziɣt deg Wehran:
Ɣas ma tettwaselmed Tmaziɣt – s kra n talɣiwin: aselmed di tesdawiyin ur nelli s talɣa tunṣibt neɣ di kra n tsudutin nniḍen s talɣa tuffirt- di kra n temnaḍin n tmurt: Dzayer, Tizi-Wezzu, Bgayet… deg Wehran werǧin tettwaselmed s kra n talɣa neɣ s tayeḍ. Ɣas llan imeɣnasen yettnaɣen fell-as, maca, werǧin ssawḍen a tt-sslemden acku uɛrent tegnatin: ula d agemmay n tifinaɣ ma ufan-t ɣer wemdan a t-awin yemsulta! Ayagi deg yiwet tama, di tama nniḍen, ssefkent ad ilint kra n tewtilin ara yessulfen i uselmed-ines: yessefk ad yili uselmad ara yesslemden, idlisen swayes ara tettwiselmed, adeg neɣ amkan ideg ara d-yili uselmed, daɣen ssefken ad ilin inelmaden i iran a tt-lemden. Ahat ula d yiwet si tewtilin-a ur telli ngum (qbel) 1989.

Taruẓi usalu deg uselmed n tmaziɣt deg Wehran – tallit tamenzut:1989/1991-:

Deffir ineḍruyen n Tuber 1988, tella-d temlilit gar-i d Kamal n At Zerrad – d yiwen ilemẓi i ɣ-yessemlalen, isem-is Smaɛil Budraɛ – nemmeslay ɣef Tmaziɣt s umta, nemmeslay daɣen ugar ɣef Tmaziɣt deg Wehran. Dɣa dinna i yi-dyemmeslay ugar ɣef wazal uselmed n Tmaziɣt. Maca, teqqim akken, ur yi-d-yenni amek, neɣ anda, neɣ melmi. Alammi deffir n wegraw n wesnulfu n tiddukla tadelsant Asirem yeḍran deg waggur n Meɣres 1989, i tt-idyessefra d akken sin yigan i wumi ara yili d lmendad netta: Aselmed n tmaziɣt d usizreg n yiwet tsella (tasɣunt) tamaziɣt. Dɣa dayen i d-yeḍran: Yesnulfa-d “Tidmi tamirant”, ssyen yezzi-d s aselmed. Yezwar yura-d tuttra akken a d-tettunefk kra n tzeqqa ideg ara yili uselmed. Si tama nniḍen ihegga-d kra n yedlisen uselmed i wumi iga talsaruft (photocopie) – idlisen d wi: Tajerrumt n tmaziɣt n dda Lmulud At Mɛemmer, Aweffus uselmed n tmaziɣt n Ḥamid Ḥamuma , d wedlis n temsirin n tmaziɣt n Remḍan Ɛeccab- ara yettunefken i inelmaden; daɣen asnubget inelmaden i iran ad lemden. Kraḍ tewtilin-a yessefken:
1) Adeg (amkan) i uselmed:
Deffir tazzliwin ɣer tsudutin tizuyaz: tamkerḍit taẓiyant, ixxamen n yedles, d yexxamen n yelmeẓyen… ayagi yakk yeffeɣ d afurriḥ, medlent yakk tewwura! Taggara, nufa-d adeg yellan yakan d tarmest n tegnayt (lexyaḍa) d-yezgan deg weɣlad n tmezgida (rue de la mosquée- oran) n mass Ɛebdekrim Benɛuf. Dinna dɣa i mmugent tigti n temsirin. Kra n temsirin mmugent anda nniḍen: axxam n Lɛeyyaci Budraɛ, taḥanut n dda Ɛebdella Ḥaman, taḥanut d Ɛmer At Ɛebdeslam, tikkwal llant-d ula di tɣellusin (leqhawi).
Tamawt: ula d allalen ulac. D alwiḥ i ɣ-d-yesbeɣ Xaled Widir ay nga d tafelwit, wamag ayen nniḍen: d “ikajuten n plastik” d” tparpanin” iɣef nettɣimi.
               2) Inelmaden:
Ɣas ma aselmad-nneɣ Kamal n At Zerrad yesmenyaf inelmaden-a ad yili weswir-nsen seg wesnawan ar wesdawan akken ad tifsus tɛekkemt, u ad ferken s uɣiwel akken ad sslemden wiyaḍ si tama-nsen. Ilmend n waya yal yiwen seg-neɣ yeẓra-d wid yessen. Maca, taggara ur ggiten, d imexḍa i d-yerran i teɣra! Tamsirt tamenzut usan-d ɣur-s wigi: Ǧamal Benɛuf, Menṣuri Ḥabib-llah, Bumasi Ɛemmar, Qeddur Buɛlam d yiwen umeddakel-ines, Lɛeyyaci d Smaɛil Budraɣ. Alemmas inelmaden yeṭṭafaren timsirin: semmus (5). Wid yezgan ttasen-d: Ǧamal Benɛuf, ḤabibLlah Menṣuri, Bumasi Ɛemmar d Qeddur Buɛlam.
            3) Aselmad, idlisen uselmed, d tarrayin uselmed:
    A) D Kamal n At Zerrad i yerẓan asalu uselmed n tmaziɣt deg Wehran, imi d netta i d amenzu i tt-yesslemden di yakk umezruy n Wehran. Dɣa d netta i d-yezgan d lmendad n yakk timsirin yemmugen si 1989 alammi d aseggas 1991 – ssyen yunag ɣer Lalman-.
B) Ugar ɣef yedlisen uselmed d-yettwabedren yakan usawen, ttwasqedcen yedlisen nniḍen n tsekla i iluɣma: Belɛid At Ɛli, Bulifa, d wiyaḍ… Ireṭṭel-aɣ-d ula d ungalen i d-yettawzergen di tallit-nni di Fransa: “Faffa” d “Asfel” n Racid Ɛellic, “Askuti” n Saɛid Seɛdi…
C) Tarrayin neḍfer d ti: – Skud aselmad-nneɣ di twuri-ines d aselmad di tesdawit yakan – nlemmed ugar ilugan n tira, ssyen aḥric neḥwaǧ kan di tjerrumt. Nebda-tt seg ugemmay alammi d imyagen. U yal tamsirt nesseḍfar-as s iluɣma – dinna di temsirt, tikkwal nteg iluɣma ɣur-neɣ deg yexxamen-nneɣ. Llant temsirin ideg nteg kan iluɣma, ladɣa tid iḍerrun di tɣellusin (leqhawi).
D) Akuden n temsirin: tallit i ttekk temsirt: Ger tamert (ssaɛa) d snat. Alemmas n temsirin: snat tsaɛtin. Ma d ussan n temsirin: ttmuggunt ussan n wesgunfu: *** n wemhad (lexmis) tikkwal ula deg wussan n leɛwacer d wussan n lficṭat daɣen – ger yiwet temsirt d snat temsirin i yal imalas- Alemmas n yiwet temsirt i yal imalas (ssmana).

Tagrayt tamatut:

Timsirin-a neḍfer llant-aɣ d aɛwin i nufa di tmeddurt d leqdic-nneɣ. D tid nufa d allal i ɣ-yullen di leqdic n tmaziɣt d tiddukla Numidya. Ldint-aɣ-d allen akken ad nefren timsal yezwaren ad mmagent, daɣen akken ad nekker ɣer tnekra yessefken i usefrek n tutlayt d yedles n tmaziɣt.
Maca, ssemḥissifeɣ nezzeh imi ur ṭṭuqten wid ifurṣen tagnit i d-yettunefken akken ad lemden. Ziɣ akka ay tḍerru di yal tallit alammi tudef tmaziɣt ad tenger! Annect-a nwala-t imiren, la t-nettwali ula d imir-a!
Tanemmirt i Kamal n At Zerrad yessḥersen fell-aɣ akken ad nissin igerrujen yeffren di tutlayt d yedles-nneɣ yenḥafen. D netta i nettawi d lewhi; yes-s i nessen iberdan yessufuɣen ɣer tizi n liser; d netta i ɣ-d-yessaɣen asafu n tafat i nefka si tama-nneɣ i wiyaḍ!

3- Aselmed n tmaziɣt di tiddukla Numidya:
         Awal amatu:
D ayen i d-nenna yakan sufella ɣef tallit-nni uselmed deg iseggasen 1989 ar 1991 ara d-yuɣalen dagi:
Ulac tiwtilin yessefken i uselmed, ulac adeg anda ara nesselmed, drus n yemdanen i wumi yennerna lebɣi akken ad lemden, rnu-yas uguren yezgan deg wudem uselmed…
Ɣas ma Numidya tella ger drus tiddukliwin i yesseqdacen tamaziɣt deg yigan d leqdic-ines. D tidet, tella d amedya di taɣult-a: tutlayt-ines d tamaziɣt ama deg yegrawen-ines neɣ deg yigan nniḍen-ines.
Yebda uselmed deg taggara useggas 1992 acku ulac adeg anda ara tesselmed, daɣen ula d tideggi (agrément) ur sd-tettunefk i tallit useggas d 12 wussan – si 18 Cṭamber 1990 alammi d *** n 1ru n Tuber 1991- ilmend n yiwet twinest-a “aselmed n tutlayt tamaziɣt” i d-tessedda deg umagrad wis-kraḍ yellan deg isentiyen n wesnulfu yerzan iswiyen-ines.
Segmi bdant temsirin-a deg useggas 1992 alammi d iseggasen-a ineggura, ur ḥbisent. Ger cwiṭ d waṭas, ger walluy d uṣubbu; ama di ẓẓmek neɣ di talwit, timsirin n tmaziɣt zgant d igi ameqqran, d ajgu n weɛrur deg yigan d leqdic n tiddukla-ya. Llant tegnatin ideg ijuǧǧeg uselmed-a ugar n tillay nniḍen: 3 neɣ 4 temsirin i yal imalas, akken llant daɣen tillay nniḍen ideg tettili kan xerṣum yiwet temsirt i yal imalas.

Iswiyen uselmed deg Numidya:
1) Asegmek (alphabétisation) s tmaziɣt acku d tutlayt yeddren kan di timawit. Ɣas llan wid
yettmeslayen kra n tantala deg-s, maca, ulac wid tt-yeɣran akken a tt-issinen, u ad arun yes-s.
   2) Awelleh, aṛeggem, asebɣes d usihrew n tirni n wid ara yeɣren d wid ara yarun s tmaziɣt. 3) Asnulfu d usileɣ ikataren ara yilin d lmendad i usefrek d uselḥu n leqdic s tmaziɣt deg tiddukla Numidya.
Tamawt: Aselmed n tmaziɣt yella-yaɣ d amenzay. Skud nessutur-it seg udabu, yessefk ad nezwir nekkni a tnesseqdec deg wennar.

Aselmad, inelmaden, idlisen uselmed, d tarrayin uselmed:
    1) Aselmad/iselmaden:

D Ǧamal Benɛuf i yesslemden d amenzu, ssyen ɣer da, ddeqs i yesslemden, gar-asen: Xaled Widir, Meqqran Buridan, Hewwari Bessay, Lyazid Walha, Lhadi Baymut, Ɛebbas Belǧudi, Muḥend Crif Meṣbaḥ, d wiyaḍ…

Tamawt: Llant kra n temsirin iɣef llan d lmendad kra imusnawen-nneɣ: Kamal n At Zerrad, Yidir Ḥmed Zayed, Meṣṭafa Benxemmu…
Sin seg wid iḍefren timsirin deg tiddukla -Muḥend Crif Meṣbaḥ d Karim- uɣalen d iselmaden n tmaziɣt s wudem unsib deg iɣerbazen mi tekcem tmaziɣt deg useggas 1995.
Llan daɣen ddeqs n wid yesslemden deg ukatar usegmek s tmaziɣt i yebdan seg 2016 ɣer da – sɣur HCA d tiddukla Iqraa-

2) inelmaden:
S umata ur nefrin kra n tewsit, kra n wi d-yusan yelmed ay akken yebɣu yili weswir-ines. Nesdukel-iten yakk deg yiwen wegraw. Maca, llant tillay mi ara ssulfent tegnatin, ideg d-nferren wid iẓewren deg yiwen wegraw nniḍen akken a ten-neḍfer akken yessefk – agraw-agi wis-sin nessalay am acemma aswir- .

Tamawt: ulac afraz ger tulawin d yergazen, ger warrac d teqcicin, ger wid yeɣran d wid ur neɣri, ger wid yettmeslayen kra n tantala d wid ur tt-nettmeslay.
Maca, llant tillay ideg ssulfent tegnatin, ideg nebḍa ɣer imeqqranen d igerdan, ger wid yessnen a tt mmeslayen d wid ur tt-nessin.

3) idlisen uselmed:
Ugar ɣef yedlisen d iweffusen uselmed i d-yettwabedren yakan, nerna-d wiyaḍ i d-iteffɣen di tillay-nni.

4) Tarrayin:
Ugar ɣef tarrayin i d-nelmed sɣur uselmad-nneɣ Kamal n At Zerrad, nerna ɣur-sent tirmit-nneɣ i d-newwi seg uselmed-nneɣ nekkni.
S umata, nesselmad ilugan n tira: seg ugemmay alamma d taseftit. Yal tamsirt nessegray-as-d s iluɣma, ama deg tira neɣ di taɣuri n yeḍrisen. Llant temsirin di tsekla n tmaziɣt i nteg nekkni, llant daɣen temsirin n tesnilsit tamatut i yessermad uselmed asdawan Mhenna, mi s-ssulfent tegnatin.
Tamawt: Inelmaden-nneɣ zgan ufraren deg tannanin ideg kkin, ama di tid yessudes Wegraw adelsan amaziɣ neɣ deg tid gant tiddukliwin am Imedyazen.

Isudag ideg tettwalmed tmaziɣt deg Wehran:
Ugar ɣef uselmed deg usideg n tiddukla Numidya, nessaweḍ nessufeɣ aselmed-ines ɣer isudag nniḍen: Lḥasi, isudag n kra ikabaren imegdayen, daɣen di kra n tzeqqiwin n tsudutin di tesdawit n Wehran.
Tamawt: Tura tekcem ɣer ddeqs iɣerbazen d tesnawiyin, ur d-teqqim kan deg uselmed-nni deg tiddukla.
Ayen d-yettwaḥellan d ubaɣur (lfayda) uselmed deg tiddukla Numidya:

1) Nerẓa asalu, u nekkes tigdi-nni ikeblen imdanen. Nerra aselmed n tmaziɣt d igi amenzu deg umennuɣ d useḥbiber fell-as. Nessaweḍ ɣas ama d kra, akken aselmed n tmaziɣt yuɣal d ayen yellan d agmawi, am tmaziɣt am tutlayin nniḍen.
    2) S uselmed-a nessaweḍ akken ad nerr aḥric ameqqran n leqdic d imuhal n Numidya yemmug akk s tmaziɣt.

3) Nessaweḍ nessuli aswir n yemdanen – xerṣum n kra – di taɣult-a n tmaziɣt, u nessehrew annar n tɣuri d tira n tmaziɣt. Nwelleh inelmaden-nneɣ akken ad arun idlisen s tmaziɣt, kra seg-sen ufraren s yedlisen-nsen: Yusef Ɛacuri, Tanaṣlit, Nadya Benɛmer…

4. Tagrayt:
Ɣas aselmed n tmaziɣt ***-a werɛad yemmid akken i t-nra, maca, yuɣal d tilawt deg wennar, ur d-yegri kan deg tmucuha.
Ɣas werǧin necrih s uselmed akken yella d wamek yettili tura, maca, nezga nteg kan amek nufa, mačči akken nra.
Lemmer ggten wid yesseḥrasen ɣef uselmed, lemmer yegget lebɣi ɣur yemdanen akken a tt-lemden, lemmer ggten iɣallen ugar n yilsawen, lemmer ggten iwaziwen, lemmer ggten wid yumnen s tmaziɣt… yili a nili xir n wakka!
Nessaram ahat yiwwas ad yeffeɣ leɛtab ar tafat, ahat ad yemmed wayen nessarem!

 

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Ǧamal u Benɛuf (Benaouf Djamal) : D amedyaz, d ameskar n waṭas yedlisen d tmezgunin; akken daɣen i iqeddec deg waṭas n yesmilen s tira-ines. Yesselmed tamaziɣt i wugar n 10 iseggasen, am wakken i yella deffir n tesɣunt « Azul » n Numidya n Wehran. Idlisen : -Timlilit n tɣermiwin, ungal, l’Harmattan, 2002;- Tujjma tuzzma, isefra, l’Harmattan, 2004;- Di tmurt uɛekki, tamezgunt, HCA, 2007;- Taklit n tayri, tullist, asmel imyura.net;- Bu tcacit ulac-it, tamezgunt;- Aneggaru a d-yerr tawwurt, tamezgunt;- Ccix-lkanun, tamezgunt;- Bu tmelɣiɣt d Bu tselɣiɣt, tamezgunt;- Tiɣwist taneggarut, tamezgunt;- Bu yefden neɣ cciṭan di twaɣit, d tasuqqelt n tmezgunt n Tawfiq Lḥakim; - Bu tfuset, tamezgunt...

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